Working Paper: Protected areas: origins, criticisms and contemporary issues for outdoor recreation #heritagefutures

Working Paper no. 15 (2013) Protected areas: origins, criticisms and contemporary issues for outdoor recreation
Jenny Smith (20pp; ISBN 979-904839-65-1)
Birmingham City University – Centre for Environment & Society Research
http://www.bcu.ac.uk/_media/docs/CESR_Working_Paper_15_2013_Smith.pdf
Abstract
This paper presents a wide-ranging literature review on the interplay between protected areas and outdoor recreation. Following a brief explanation of the origins of protected areas and the escalation of their designation around the globe, it highlights a range of criticisms relating to the process of protected area designation and how this has impacted upon their
overall effectiveness in conserving our most valuable habitats, species and landscapes. Whilst there is a particular focus on the British context, international examples are used to allow critical reflections on the global nature and status of protected areas as a means of conservation management in contemporary society. It is noted that whilst many authors offer valid, criticisms of protected area policy, few deny their importance as a means of protecting our most valuable habitats and landscapes. In contemporary society the growth in outdoor recreation, especially of ‘adventure activities’ such as mountain biking, has placed
additional pressure on designated areas and brought the management of such areas into question.

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