Working Paper: Protected areas: origins, criticisms and contemporary issues for outdoor recreation #heritagefutures

Working Paper no. 15 (2013) Protected areas: origins, criticisms and contemporary issues for outdoor recreation
Jenny Smith (20pp; ISBN 979-904839-65-1)
Birmingham City University – Centre for Environment & Society Research
This paper presents a wide-ranging literature review on the interplay between protected areas and outdoor recreation. Following a brief explanation of the origins of protected areas and the escalation of their designation around the globe, it highlights a range of criticisms relating to the process of protected area designation and how this has impacted upon their
overall effectiveness in conserving our most valuable habitats, species and landscapes. Whilst there is a particular focus on the British context, international examples are used to allow critical reflections on the global nature and status of protected areas as a means of conservation management in contemporary society. It is noted that whilst many authors offer valid, criticisms of protected area policy, few deny their importance as a means of protecting our most valuable habitats and landscapes. In contemporary society the growth in outdoor recreation, especially of ‘adventure activities’ such as mountain biking, has placed
additional pressure on designated areas and brought the management of such areas into question.


Institute of Cultural Capital Report – London 2012 Cultural Olympiad Evaluation Final Report #heritagefutures

Led by the ICC’s Head of Research, Dr Beatriz Garcia, the report which examines the impact of the London 2012 Cultural Olympiad has been released

Established as a four year, UK-wide programme, the 2012 Cultural Olympiad was the largest cultural programme of any Olympic and Paralympic Games with a geographical scale unmatched by any previous UK cultural festival. The finale of the Cultural Olympiad was the London 2012 Festival, a 12-week nationwide celebration running from 21 June – 9 September 2012, the largest UK-wide festival ever staged.

The Cultural Olympiad Evaluation was a 15 month programme of work led by Dr Beatriz Garcia. The research team involved ICC Research Associates Tamsin Cox of DHA Communications and consultant Kate Rodenhurst, University of Liverpool’s Dr Peter Campbell and Dr Philippa Hunter-Jones in analysing the impact of the largest cultural celebration in the history of the modern Olympic and Paralympic Movements. The team captured the multiple impacts of cultural activity and analysed how the Olympiad met it’s aims and objectives and explored how it made a difference to people, how communities were connected to London 2012 and how it created defining national and international moments that shaped the upcoming and future story of the Olympic Games.


Place & Space Research Group #heritagefutures

The Place and Space Research Group is dedicated to the promotion of good practice and research to make our towns, cities and neighbourhoods better places to live and also to make them more resilient to the growing demands of climate change. We have just launched a new exciting training programme for 2013 and a new policy/academic journal called ‘Place and Space’. To register your interest in any of the work that we do please email here. Details of our work can be found at and the following links, and